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PART "B"

This test will be numbered A-D with each test having a series of questions. Test A-D will be definitions. You are to define in your own words each part of the fish/piranha organ as listed. References must be included at the bottom once the answers are provided on where you gathered the source. For example;

Magallanes, Frank, 1989, Sexual Dimorphism, Catoprion mento, Journal of Piranhas and Other Predatory Fresh Water Fishes, pg. 22-35.

OPEFE link; My Webpage is provided as some of these answers are found to the question there. In other situations you will have to search out via the internet web for the answer. I'm not grading for spelling, but content.

1. Describe the parts of a piranhas eyes and what it consists of.

2. Who was named the father of characin systemics?

3. Are fishes eyes capable of dilation (T or F) and if true, does it contract (Y or N)?

4. T or F; The habits of fishes are closely correlated with the development or degeneration of the eyes?

5. What is the outer surface of the eye composed of?

6. To gather food, the loss of vision must be compensated by another organ. With piranas list those organs?

7. T or F Aquatic animals have two types of respiratory organs?

8. In piranas, name what the gill filaments are supported by.

9. What are cartilaginous or bony tubercles called?

10. Define how aeration of the blood is caused (by what method)?
 

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Dear Frank:
Here are my answers, as sources I used :
Schulte: Piranhas,
Schulte: Piranhas in the aquarium,
Schleser:piranhas,
and your website.

I decided to answer in english, that all members can read and (i hope so ) understand my answers.
here I go :

1) some parts I remember : lens, retina, cornea

2) Linne, made systema nature, was the first who has published about P's in scientific-way

3)T, the lense can be moved in direction of the retina, via muscles; Contract ? if you are meant the iris :no

4) I think F : cause many P's live in white and black water with very low seight, and as I know : they don't have any degeneration of the eyes.

5) Hornhaut, horny skin: cornea

6) I think, that fishes, that cannot use their eyelight uses more then one other sense on the hunt:

lateral line, hearing with inner ear( Weberian's apparatur)
and smell ( with olfactic organ).

maybe that some fishes uses produced sounds like echo.

7) some fish uses more then just gills; eels, for example can breath throug skin, and there are more fishes like betta who uses theire labyrith for breething

8) didn't got the question, can you please explain in other words ?

9)If i got it right you mean the "supraneurals",

but my other idera was the otoliths, but If I got the question right, it is my first answer

10) The areation is caused by muscular compression in the heart in a single circle ( not 2 bloodcircles like in human ).
so here is the way:

bulbus arterius with valves to
muscular chamber ( ventricle) with contraction to
aorto ( thoracalis ?) to
2 branches into the left and right gill
co2-o2 exchange
with o2 to arteria carotis to head and
with o2 to aorta (abdominalis ???) to inner organs
and with branches to other parts of the body
( do I have to name here every vessel ?), like the skin , or muscles
and back to the bulbus via a system of veins

so Frank, I hope you anderstand my answers in some points.

it was a nice test and I had have a sleepless night,
but now I want to know the right answers.

If you don't want to post them this time , please answer via e-mail or PM.

Regards

Michael

Gute nacht und Prost
 

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Sorry forgot about the test
.

1. Describe the parts of a piranhas eyes and what it consists of.
Rods, cones, globular lens and flatish cornea.

2. Who was named the father of characin systemics?
Carl H. Eigenmann

3. Are fishes eyes capable of dilation (T or F) and if true, does it contract (Y or N)?
Yes fishes eyes capable of dilation. Yes it does contract.

4. T or F; The habits of fishes are closely correlated with the development or degeneration of the eyes?
True

5. What is the outer surface of the eye composed of?
It is composed of the cornea and the lens is filled with the aqueous humor.

6. To gather food, the loss of vision must be compensated by another organ. With piranas list those organs?
Lateral line (for motion detection) and the olfactory organs (for smelling).

7. T or F Aquatic animals have two types of respiratory organs?
True; external and internal gills. However external gills are more characteristic for amphibians.

8. In piranas, name what the gill filaments are supported by.

Branchial arches
9. What are cartilaginous or bony tubercles called?
Gill rakers and are attached to the inner side of the gill arches.

10. Define how aeration of the blood is caused (by what method)?
Rhythmical intake of water into the mouth cavity and is pushed out through the gill clefts, then the gill filaments, which absorb oxygen and give off as waste dissolved gases.
 
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