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Below are words commonly used in science literature. It is here solely as a guideline for hobbyists to read and examine usage. It is not a rule to live by:

Natural Selection: The process which simply states that the types of creatures which reproduce the most overall will end up with the most numbers in the end. The two classic things which natural selection pushes for are being able to survive longer (and thus having more time to reproduce), and being able to reproduce faster.

1. Shoal is not applicable to piranhas. Piranhas do not shoal in the usual sense, they group. The word may be used, but loosely when it is applied so long as the meaning is understood.

a. shoal = 1) a social group of fish, e.g. in shallow water or at the surface, cf. school where synchronised swimming is the criterion.

b. shoal = 2) a submerged ridge, bank, or bar covered by mud, sand or gravel which is at or near enough to the water surface to constitute a danger to navigation.

c. shoal = 3) said of waters where there is a change in depth from deep to shallow.
shoaling fish = large schools, usually of small pelagic fish.

2. Colony = Not applicable to piranhas because it pretains to a protective grouping of spawning fish to protect young from predators.

3. Eco-system as it pertains to piranhas is applicable as is Habitat. Either word can be used interchangebly.

a. ecosystem = the complex of living organisms and environmental conditions that function as a unit. Biocenosis plus biotope.

b. habitat = the place a species lives, defined by necessary biological and physical parameters, e.g. tidal pool, marsh, reef, continental shelf, river rapids.

4. Cohabitation: there is no scientific word in the dictionary that has a definition for it. Some researchers in fish studies use it loosely. But vast majority use this word for describing gay couples or singles living together. Not valid for piranhas.

5. Piranhas (with 1 exception) are NOT sexually dimorphic according to science and published credible authors: sexual dimorphism = the difference in shape and size between male and female fish.

6. sexing = determination of the sex of a fish, usually by external characters (secondary sex characteristics).

7. sexual dichromatism = the difference in colour between male and female fish.

a person who pursues and activity in their spare time for pleasure.

An expert is someone widely recognized as a reliable source of knowledge or skill whose judgement is accorded authority and status by the public or their peers. Experts have prolonged or intense experience, practice or education in a particular field that goes significantly beyond any general or shallow appreciation.

One who designs or maintains an aquarium.

Scientific Method:
Orderly process by which theories are developed, tested, and either verified or disproved.

Peer Review:
A process by which research studies (ie; Scientific Method review) are examined by an independent panel of researchers for review. The purpose of such is to open the study to examination, criticism, review and replication by peer investigators and ultimately incorporate the new knowledge into the field.

1) A small-scale trial of a new approach or a new process.
2) A statistical test to determine the probability that an observed deviation from the expected event or outcome occurs solely by chance.

1) In the scientific method, an experiment is a set of actions and observations, performed to verify or falsify a hypothesis or research a causal relationship between phenomena. The experiment is a cornerstone in empirical approach to knowledge.

2) A test under defined conditions to determine an unknown effect; to illustrate or verify a known law; to test or establish a hypothesis.

A scientific idea about how something works, before the idea has been tested. Scientists do experiments to test their hypothesis and see if the hypothesis is correct.

A model or idea that has undergone testing or validation from careful observations and can be used to make a variety of predictions of what will happen under different circumstances.
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